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Topic Codebook

General Information: 

Download a .pdf version of the 2014 Topics Codebook here.

Observations in Policy Agendas Project datasets are coded according to the guidelines and topic system described below.  This codebook is an updated version of the original codebook created by Baumgartner and Jones.  Each entry is coded into one of 20 major topics and 220 subtopics.  In this codebook, we provide a series of general coding guidelines for classifying observations, a complete list of all major topics and subtopics, and examples of cases coded in each subtopic.  Users should note that not all the topic and subtopic numbers are consecutive and that the coding system is hierarchal: each subtopic falls within a single major topic.  Analysts concerned with identifying each case dealing with a particular issue may want to use care in also examining the textual summaries for cases in related subtopics and in the general subtopic, since these can include cases that discuss multiple subtopics.  Also note that some Project datasets use limited additional codes (for example, New York Times and Encyclopedia of Associations) listed below.

2014 Update to Codebook (click to expand):

As of February 2014, this codebook reflects significant revisions to the PAP major and subtopic coding system that are now implemented in all public datasets. These changes include the closest implementation of the international Comparative Agendas Project codebook in the U.S. Context, and are listed below. All datasets now include two sets of codes: major topic codes and subtopic codes updated to the 2014 codebook described below, and major topic codes and subtopic codes that correspond to the international Comparative Agendas Project. These changes include, but are not limited to: the addition of a new major topic for “Immigration”, the addition of a subtopic code for “Fisheries,” and the merging of some country/region subtopic codes within “Foreign Affairs.”

Changes relevant to datasets with subtopics (Hearings, Laws, Executive Orders, State of the Union, Supreme Court, Roll Calls, Bills):
---Moved 530 to 900
---Merged 1907/1908/1909/1911/1912/1914/1919/1920 as 1921
---Merged 342/343/344 as 342
---Recoded obs. mentioning domesticated animal welfare in 709 as 405
---Recoded obs. mentioning fishing issues and fisheries in 709 as 408
---Recoded obs. mentioning specific industries in 504 as substantively related subtopics

Changes relevant to NYT dataset:
---Moved 28 to 23
---Recoded obs. mentioning immigration within 5 as 9
---Recoded obs. mentioning domesticated animal welfare within 7 as 4
---Recoded obs. mentioning fishing issues and fisheries within 7 as 4
---Recoded obs. mentioning specific industries in 5 as substantively related subtopics

Changes relevant to Most Important Problem dataset:
---Moved “Immigration/illegal aliens” in 5 to 9

Changes relevant to Encyclopedia of Associations dataset:
---Moved “Immigration” related observations into 9

Changes relevant to Policy Mood dataset (see data codebook for more information):
---Moved 530 to 900
---Recalculated 500s

For comparability with any existing analyses, the 2013 Codebook and corresponding archived versions of all datasets are available here. Any future fixes or data updates will not be reflected in these archived versions. 

Coding Guidelines (click to expand):

1. Observations are coded according to the single predominant, substantive policy area rather than the targets of particular policies or the policy instrument utilized.

For example, if a case discusses mental health programs for returning veterans it would be coded according to the predominant substantive policy area (mental illness, code 333) rather than the target of the programs (veterans affairs, code 1609).  If a case discusses changes to the home mortgage tax deduction, it is coded according to the substantive policy area (consumer mortgages, code 1504) rather than the policy instrument (the tax code, code 107).

2. Observations that discuss appropriations for particular departments and agencies are coded according to their substantive policy area.  Those that discuss appropriations for multiple departments and agencies that span multiple major topic codes are coded as general government operations (code 2000).

For example, cases that discuss appropriations for the Dept. of Energy are coded as energy (code 800) and those that discuss appropriations for the FAA are coded as air transportation (code 1003).  Cases that discuss appropriations across multiple major topic areas, such as appropriations for the Dept. of State (code 1900), the Dept. of Defense (code 1600), and the Dept. of Energy (code 800), are coded as general government operations (code 2000).

3. Observations that discuss terrorism and homeland security issues are coded according to their substantive policy focus.

Since 2001, the U.S. government has revised its nomenclature for many government activities, often associated with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security.  Because we are sensitive to the historical consistency of our category system going back to 1947, this has required some adjustments.  As a result, and according to the first guideline above, cases discussing terrorism and homeland security are coded according to the particular substantive aspect of terrorism or homeland security at issue.  For example, if an observation discusses a terrorist act outside of the United States by a foreign entity, it will coded as international terrorism (code 1927), while an observation that discusses strengthening airline security will be coded as air transportation (1003).  Further, a case that discusses the protection of citizens from bioterrorist attacks with public health dimensions will be coded as health promotion (code 331), a case that discusses the prevention of terrorist attacks on crops or farm animals will be coded as animal and crop protection (code 405), and a case that discusses the prevention of terrorist attacks on nuclear energy facilities will be coded as nuclear energy (code 801).  Observations dealing with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) budget requests, appropriations and other broad or cross-cutting issues involving DHS are coded as Civil Defense and Homeland Security Functions (code 1615), which includes general domestic terrorism prevention efforts.  

4. Observations that discuss Native American affairs (code 2102), D.C. affairs (2014), or the affairs of U.S. Dependencies and Territories (code 2105) are placed in their corresponding subtopic codes regardless of substantive policy area.  This is an exception to the first guideline.

For example, a case that discusses restrictions on firearms in D.C. are coded as D.C. affairs (code 2014) rather than weapons control (code 1209).

5. Observations that mention foreign countries are coded according to the following sub-guidelines.

Observations that discuss U.S.-focused implications related to the policy of a foreign country are coded according to the substantive policy area. For example, if a case discusses the implications of a country's CO2 emissions policy on U.S. domestic climate change policy, it is coded as global warming (code 705).

Observations that discuss the U.S. and another country in a dyadic relationship are generally coded within “Foreign Trade,” “Foreign Affairs,” or “Defense” depending on the substantive policy focus. General U.S. foreign policy issues are coded as foreign affairs (code 1900) and non-specific bilateral agreements are coded according to the country mentioned (code 1910 or 1921).

Observations not mentioning the U.S. are coded according to substantive policy area within Foreign Affairs. For example, if a case discusses violations of human rights in a specific country it is coded as human rights (code 1925). Remaining cases without a substantive policy focus are coded according to the region or specific country mentioned. These include cases discussing the entry of a new country into the E.U. (code 1910), the tax system of another country (code 1910 or 1921), or political developments in another country (code 1910 or 1921).

6. The general (NN00) subtopic includes cases where more than one distinct subtopic was discussed within a single major topic area. 

For example, if a case discusses both water pollution (code 701) and air pollution (code 705), it is coded as a general environmental issue (code 700). Thus, the general category within each major topic area includes some cases that are truly general as well as some cases that are the combination of as few as two subtopics.  Each major topic includes an other category (NN99) for issues that do not fit into any of the categories and for which there were too few cases to justify the creation of a new category.  

7. While it is uncommon that observations not related to appropriations equally span two major topic areas, these observations are assigned the numerically lower major or subtopic code.

For example, a case that discussed both drinking water safety (code 701) and hydroelectricity (code 802) with equal weight is coded according to the numerically lower code (code 701).  This is a rarely used, arbitrary guideline employed for cases that do not clearly have a distinguishable, predominate substantive issue focus.

Major Topic Codes (click below to expand): 

1. Macroeconomics

100: General Domestic Macroeconomic Issues (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: the administration’s economic plans, economic conditions and issues, economic growth and outlook, state of the economy, long-term economic needs, recessions, general economic policy, promote economic recovery and full employment, demographic changes, population trends, recession effects on state and local economies, distribution of income, assuring an opportunity for employment to every American seeking work.

101: Inflation, Prices, and Interest Rates

Examples: inflation control and reduction, anti-inflation programs, calculation of inflation statistics and price index statistics, consumer price index, food prices, cost of living, interest rates, bureau of labor reports on inflation, effects of inflation on business, general economic statistics.

103: Unemployment Rate

Examples: unemployment and employment statistics, economic and social impact of unemployment, national employment priorities, employment and labor market development, bureau of labor reports on unemployment.

See also: 502, 503 solutions to unemployment problems.

104: Monetary Supply, Federal Reserve Board, and the Treasury

Examples: monetary policy issues, Federal Reserve’s yearly monetary policy reports, Department of Treasury and Federal Reserve Board budget requests and appropriations, credit availability, national savings rate, relationship between fiscal and monetary policies, control of gold supply, gold reserve issues, savings bonds, treasury bonds.

See also: 1808 exchange rates; 1501 Federal Reserve banking issues.

105: National Budget and Debt

Examples: administration’s yearly budget proposals, balanced budget act and enforcement, budget process, federal debt and deficit, deficit reduction and management proposals, budget projections, increases in the public debt limit, concurrent budget resolutions, impact of budget reductions on industries, states and communities, move trust fund accounts off-budget, move trust fund accounts on-budget, public debt issues, including retirement of public debt, changes in fiscal year status.

107: Taxation, Tax policy, and Tax Reform

Examples: state taxation of income, state and local income taxes, clarification of tax code, tax code reform, luxury and excise taxes, estate and gift taxes, corporate income taxes, administration tax proposals, income tax reform, tax treatment of charities, federal tax code reform and simplification, revenue acts, impact of taxes on business, multiple tax changes (excise and capital gains), general tax changes, charitable contribution deduction bills, domestic tax breaks for foreign businesses, omnibus tax issues, general legislation that amends the Internal Revenue Code.

(Special Note: Specific tax changes should be coded based upon the subject matter. For instance, deductions for mortgages should go in mortgages; tax incentives to promote child care should go in child care.)

See also: 2009 IRS administration.

108: Industrial Policy

Examples: manufacturing strategy, technological capacity of industry, assistance to specific industries, national industrial policy, industry revitalization and growth, decline in U.S. industrial productivity, plant closings and relocation, industrial reorganization, commission on productivity, industrialization centers.

See also: 1806 international business competition; 1403 economic development programs.

110: Price Control and Stabilization

Examples: economic stabilization programs, wage-price control and freezes, administered pricing programs, emergency price controls.

199: Other

2. Civil Rights, Minority Issues, and Civil Liberties

200: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: Civil Rights Commission appropriations, civil rights violations, Civil Rights Act, Equal Rights amendments, equal employment opportunity laws, discrimination against women and minorities, appropriations for civil rights programs, civil rights enforcement, coverage of the civil rights act, employment discrimination involving several communities (age, gender, race, etc. in combination), taking private property, impact on private property rights, employment discrimination due to race, color, and religion, and fair housing initiatives and discrimination in housing.

201: Ethnic Minority and Racial Group Discrimination

Examples: minority set aside programs, minority contracting and business development, appointment of minorities to federal judgeships, school desegregation, minority discrimination by rental car agencies, FBI hiring and promotion of minorities, race based crimes, investigation of the Ku Klux Klan.

202: Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination

Examples: gender and sexual orientation discrimination in the military, social security inequities affecting women, employment barriers to women, female salary inequities, sex discrimination regulations, equal pay for women.

204: Age Discrimination

Examples: age discrimination in employment, mandatory retirement ages, age discrimination in selection of federal judges, EEOC problems in enforcing age discrimination laws, retirement age policies.

205: Handicap or Disease Discrimination

Examples: discrimination against the disabled, airline discrimination against blind people, employment of persons with disabilities, insurance discrimination of blind people, civil rights of institutionalized persons and the mentally retarded, travel problems of the handicapped, discrimination based on genetics or health conditions, Americans with Disabilities Act.

206: Voting Rights, Participation, and Related Issues

Examples: state discriminatory barriers to voting registration, banning literacy tests, Voting Rights Act and enforcement, free mailing of voter registration forms, lowering the voting age to 18, abolition of poll taxes.

207: Freedom of Speech & Religion

Examples: amendments to the civil liberties act, religious freedom, physical desecration of the flag, school prayer, religious speech protection, anti-obscenity legislation.

208: Right to Privacy and Access to Government Information

Examples: privacy of consumer and worker records, employee drug and polygraph testing, computer access and security, police wiretapping, privacy of medical records, access to government records and information, disclosure and confidentiality standards for government information, electronic funds transfer and financial privacy, security and privacy of criminal arrest records, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), dissemination of USIA films, programs or information within the U.S. or at museums, protection of women’s abortion rights.

209: Anti-Government Activities

Examples: theory and practice of Communism, subversive activities control act, investigate the activities of the Black Panther Party, internal security laws, investigation of the Students for a Democratic Society, investigation of anti-Vietnam War protesters, investigation of the activities of the New Left, communist involvement in urban race riots, investigation of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, investigation of student unrest at various universities, investigation of communist youth activities, establishing agencies to educate the public on the tactics of communist subversives, investigate the scope of Soviet activity in the U.S., investigate communist infiltration of education institutions and the U.S. military.

299: Other

Examples: right to livelihood, legal fees equity act, misuse of OEO funds, membership on the Commission on Civil Rights

3. Health

300: General

Examples: National Institute of Health (NIH) appropriations, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) appropriations, activities that provide little evidence of policy direction, commissions to study health issues, solvency of Medicare.

301: Comprehensive health care reform

Examples: proposals to reform broader health system (rather than specific aspects of a program), including establishment of a national health care system, comprehensive Medicare reform, delegation of responsibilities to the states, changing responsibilities of states, regulation of state health care reform, initiatives in women's health, initiatives in rural health, federal assistance percentages, state share of Medicare or Medicaid payments.

See also: 334 long-term health care reform; 302 insurance reform.

302: Insurance reform, availability, and cost

Examples: Access, eligibility, the uninsured, Medicare premiums, Medicare supplemental insurance (Medigap), establishment of tax free medical savings accounts, regulation of the individual insurance market, health-related ERISA issues, coverage of veterans under Medicare, coverage of veterans under federal employee health plans (FEHB), regulation of HMOs and insurers with respect to general availability of coverage (e.g. patients’ bill of rights), enrollment mix requirements for HMOs, catastrophic coverage under Medicare.

See also: 331-36 specific benefits; 334 long-term care insurance.

321: Regulation of drug industry, medical devices, and clinical labs

Examples: Generally about safety of products and procedures, approval processes, drug labeling and marketing, organ transplant allocations, safety of the blood supply, faulty cholesterol screening, prescription drug counterfeiting, pacemaker regulation, prescription drug labeling, over-the-counter drug safety, fatal allergic reactions to drugs, drug abuse in nursing homes, vitamin, mineral and diet supplements, regulation of drug marketing procedures, approval of drugs to combat specific diseases, FDA drug approval process, FDA regulation of medical devices, FDA approval of contraceptive devices, regulation of clinical trials, inspection of x-ray equipment by PHS.

See also: 335 prescription drug costs; 398 research; 1520 for antitrust issues.

322: Facilities construction, regulation, and payments

Examples: Construction of hospitals, laboratories, health centers and nursing homes, including issues of undersupply of such facilities in rural or urban areas (disproportionate share payments to hospitals) payments to hospitals for inpatient services under Medicare, emergency care facilities, regulation of standards and activities within these facilities, including personnel qualifications, HHS certification of long-term health care facilities, nursing home standards and regulation, Public Health Service (PHS) appropriations, PHS activities and regulation, medical lab reliability issues, Hospital Construction Act.

See also: 323 payments to providers; 325 teaching hospitals.

323: Provider and insurer payment and regulation

Examples: Reimbursement rates and methods for physicians, insurance companies, or specific procedures, peer review procedures, prospective payment system (PPS), appeals processes, payment rates for HMO services, regional adjustments, risk adjustment, reimbursement for chiropractors, foreign medical graduates, nurse practitioners, payment for outpatient services.

See also: 325 workforce training programs; 302 insurer or managed care consumer protections.

324: Medical liability, fraud and abuse

Examples: Malpractice issues, fraudulent medical degrees, unfair sales practices, misuse of federal funds for mental health care, Medicare overbilling, conflicts of interest, misuse of federal funds for mental health care, medical malpractice insurance coverage, revocation of physician licenses, suspension of physician privileges, dispute resolution for medical malpractice claims, unfair sales practices in the diet and medical industries, liability protection for federal physicians.

See also: 325 physician certification and licensing.

325: Health Manpower & Training

Examples: Issues of undersupply and oversupply of health personnel, including incentives to practice in underserved areas, certification and licensing procedures, coverage of services provided by training programs and medical schools, reimbursement rates for teaching hospitals, collective bargaining, health manpower training, nurse training, public health training grants, physician training, medical libraries, nurse midwifery.

See also: 324 Malpractice issues, 323 compensation and regulation of health care providers.

331: Prevention, communicable diseases and health promotion

Examples: Cancer screening, health promotion programs, consumer guides, medical information, health education in schools, immunization, prevention programs for osteoporosis, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, federal response to AIDS, breast cancer treatment, skin cancer, renal disease, treatment of high blood pressure, Legionnaire’s disease, communicable disease control, sickle cell anemia prevention, polio, Center for Disease Control funding, designation of national health promotion holidays.

See also: 208 right to privacy; 341-44 drug and tobacco programs.

332: Infants and children

Examples: Preventive services for children, prenatal care, child and juvenile health care, school health programs, child immunization, Comprehensive Child Immunization Act, reduction of infant mortality, promotion of breast feeding, prenatal care programs, child health care, sudden infant death syndrome, childhood malnutrition, fetal alcohol syndrome, child dental care.

See also: 331 health education programs; 208 abortion related issues.

333: Mental illness and mental retardation

Examples: Federal role in providing services to the mentally ill, mental health services, quality of care for mentally ill, mentally ill and handicapped children, specialized housing for mentally retarded, mental health centers, veteran’s mental health.

See also: 324 misuse of federal funds for mental health care; 322 reviews of hospital psychiatric programs.

334: Long-term care, home health, terminally ill, and rehabilitation services

Examples: Benefits and costs issues related to Medicare catastrophic costs, hospice, nursing homes, in home care, regulation of the sale of long-term health care to the elderly, long-term care insurance improvement, court appointed guardianships for the elderly and infirm, aging, gerontology research, National Institute of Aging, problems in financing long-term care, community alternative to institutional care, approaches to long-term care for the elderly, conferences on aging, comprehensive home health care, rehabilitation needs of persons with head injuries, life-sustaining treatments for the terminally ill.

See also: 322 nursing home standards; 333 long-term care for the mentally ill; 1304 disability benefits; 1609 veterans' disability benefits; 323 payment for outpatient services; 336 provision of outpatient benefits.

335: Prescription drug coverage and costs

Examples: Medicare prescription drug coverage, coverage of specific drugs under Medicaid, rising costs of drug coverage, coverage of clinical trials and experimental treatments.

See also: 321 regulation of drug industry.

336: Other or multiple benefits and procedures

Examples: Treatment for Alzheimer’s, dental services, vision services, renal disease, breast cancer detection and treatment, durable medical equipment (e.g. wheelchairs).

341: Tobacco Abuse, Treatment, and Education

Examples: cigarette advertising and regulatory issues, ban on smoking in federal buildings, increase public awareness of smoking health risks, smoking prevention education programs, health effects associated with smoking.

342: Alcohol/Controlled and Illegal Drug Abuse, Treatment, and Education

Examples: implementation of the national minimum drinking age act, alcoholic beverage advertising act, alcohol abuse among the elderly, prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse, health insurance coverage of alcohol abuse treatment, drunk driving victims protection, drunk driving enforcement aid for states, alcoholism prevention programs, drug abuse education and prevention programs in schools, community based anti-drug programs, federal prison substance abuse treatment availability act, drug abuse treatment programs and insurance coverage, extension of drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, health coverage of drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs, drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs in schools, drug and alcohol abuse in the armed services, juvenile alcohol and drug abuse, entertainment industry efforts to curb drug and alcohol abuse.

See also: 1203 drug trafficking; 321 drug safety.

(Special Note: This topic merges previous subtopics 342, 343, and 344.)

398: Research and development

Examples: Alzheimer’s research, research on women’s health, government tax incentives for research and development, research grants to organizations and educational institutions, conferences on health-related issues, genetic engineering issues, medical research and regulatory issues, sleep disorders research, NASA-NIH biomedical research, fetal tissue transplant research, health policy research programs, medical applications of biotechnology research, research on increased life expectancy, human genetic engineering research, biomedical and behavioral research.

399: Other

Examples: health consequences of a nuclear attack.

4. Agriculture

400: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: DOA, USDA and FDA appropriations, general farm bills, farm legislation issues, economic conditions in agriculture, impact of budget reductions on agriculture, importance of agriculture to the U.S. economy, national farmland protection policies, agriculture and rural development appropriations, family farmers, state of American agriculture, farm program administration, long range agricultural policies, amend the Agriculture and Food Act, National Agricultural Bargaining Board.

401: Agricultural Trade

Examples: FDA inspection of imports, agriculture export promotion efforts, agricultural trade promotion programs, tobacco import trends, agricultural export credit guarantee programs, impact of imported meats on domestic industries, country of origin produce labeling, USDA agricultural export initiatives, value added agricultural products in U.S. trade, establish coffee export quotas, effects of Mexican produce importation, international wheat agreements, livestock and poultry exports, amend Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, reemphasize trade development, promote foreign trade in grapes and plums, prohibit unfair trade practices affecting producers of agricultural products, extend Agricultural Trade Development, enact the Agriculture Trade Act of 1978, establish agricultural aid and trade missions to assist foreign countries to participate in U.S. agricultural aid and trade programs, Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act Amendments.

See also: 1800 general foreign trade; 1502 agricultural commodities trading.

402: Government Subsidies to Farmers and Ranchers, Agricultural Disaster Insurance

Examples: agricultural price support programs, USDA crop loss assistance, farm credit system financial viability, federal agriculture credit programs, agricultural disaster relief programs, subsidies for dairy producers, farm loan and credit issues, reforming federal crop insurance programs, credit assistance for family operated farms, federal milk supply and pricing policies, renegotiation of farm debts, USDA direct subsidy payments to producers, establishing farm program payment yields, peanut programs, wheat programs, evaluation of the supply and demand for various agricultural commodities, beef prices, cotton acreage allotments, shortages of agricultural storage facilities, agricultural subterminal storage facilities, financial problems of farm banks, Agricultural Adjustment Act, farm vehicle issues, Wool Act, Sugar Act, feed grain programs, cropland adjustment programs.

See also: 1404 farm real estate financing.

403: Food Inspection and Safety (including seafood)

Examples: FDA monitoring of animal drug residues, consumer seafood safety, budget requests for food safety programs, food labeling requirements, grain inspection services, regulation of health and nutrition claims in food advertising and labeling, sanitary requirements for food transportation, regulation of pesticide residues on fruit, food irradiation control act, regulation of artificial food coloring, federal control over the contamination of food supplies, meat grading standards, meat processing and handling requirements, improvement of railroad food storage facilities, shortage of grain storage facilities, food packaging standards, food buyer protection, regulation of food additives, federal seed act, definition and standards of dry milk solids.

See also: 401 inspections of food imports.

404: Agricultural Marketing, Research, and Promotion

Examples: soybean promotion and consumer information act, USDA commodity promotion programs, cotton promotion, wheat marketing problems, livestock marketing, new peanut marketing system, establishing a national commission on food marketing, fruit and vegetable marketing, industrial uses for agricultural products, meat promotion program, national turkey marketing act, federal marketing quotas for wheat.

405: Animal and Crop Disease, Pest Control, and Domesticated Animal Welfare

Examples: USDA regulation of plant and animal mailing to prevent the spread of diseases, control of animal and plant pests, pork industry swine disease eradication program, virus protection for sheep, grasshopper and cricket control programs on farmland, USDA response to the outbreak of citrus disease in Florida, eradication of livestock diseases, brucellosis outbreak in cattle, USDA integrated pest management program, toxic contamination of livestock, fire ant eradication program, proposed citrus blackfly quarantine, predator control problems, biological controls for insects and diseases on agricultural crops, eradication of farm animal foot and mouth diseases, efforts to protect the food-supply from terrorist attacks, treatment and welfare of domesticated animals or animals under human control, use of animals for research, sale or transportation of animals.

See also: 403 pesticide residues on foods; 704 pollution effects of pesticides; 709 welfare of wild animals and humane trapping.

408: Fisheries and Fishing

Examples: regulation of commercial fishing and fisheries, fisheries conservation and management; fish hatchery development; fishery resources; fish trapping; fishing licenses; general loans to fisheries or fisherman’s associations; rebuilding of fisheries; fishing quotas.

See also: 498 fisheries research; 709 protection of fish species/populations, or restoration of fish habitats; 1007 regulation/safety of fishing vessels; 1902 international fishing agreements; 2103 public land conveyance for fisheries.

498: Agricultural Research and Development

Examples: condition of federally funded agricultural research facilities, USDA nutrition research activities, USDA agricultural research programs, regulation of research in agricultural biotechnology programs, organic farming research, potential uses of genetic engineering in agriculture, agricultural research services, research on aquaculture, fisheries research.

499: Other

Examples: methodologies used in a nationwide food consumption survey, agricultural weather information services, federal agricultural census, designate a national grain board, home gardening, redefinition of the term "farm”, farm cooperative issues.

5. Labor and Employment

500: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: Department of Labor budget requests and appropriations, assess change in labor markets to the year 2000, human resources development act, recent decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, national employment priorities, employment security administration financing, current labor market developments.

501: Worker Safety and Protection, Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA)

Examples: mine safety regulations, lead exposure risks during construction activities, improving OSHA safety and health programs, petrochemical plant worker safety, repetitive motion illnesses in the workplace, OSHA penalties and procedures for violations resulting in employee death or disability, investigation of a fatal fire at a chicken processing plant in North Carolina, construction safety standards, improve procedures for occupational health hazards identification, identification of high-risk diseases in the work place, worker protection at Superfund clean-up sites, drug and alcohol abuse in the work place, compensation for occupational diseases, safety at DOE nuclear facilities, black lung benefits and black lung disease.

502: Employment Training and Workforce Development

Examples: job training partnership acts (JPTA), job opportunities and basic skills training programs, federal aid for job retraining, job displacement programs among timber workers, workforce 2000 employment readiness act, elderly workers and job re-training, DOL bonuses to states for training and employment of long-term welfare recipients, national employment priorities act, work incentive programs, manpower and employment problems in Cleveland, manpower development and training act, public service jobs for unemployed, public service job programs, Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), job training for veterans.

503: Employee Benefits

Examples: underfunded pension plans and pension plan protection, emergency unemployment compensation, guarantees of retirement annuities, employee stock ownership plans, pension benefit guarantee corporation, voluntary employee leave sharing program, unemployment compensation system financing, worker compensation ratemaking reform, tax treatment of employee fringe benefits, disability insurance legislation, railroad employment benefits, welfare and pension plans disclosure act, corporate solvency of health benefit plans, ERISA.

See also: 2004 federal employee benefits; 300s employee health benefits and access to coverage.

504: Employee Relations and Labor Unions

Examples: general labor-management relations, striker replacement legislation, operations of the NLRB, federal agency guidelines for worker dispute resolution, unions and collective bargaining problems, labor law reform and unfair labor practices, terms of office for local labor union officers, investigation into the causes of labor disputes, notification of plant closures or layoffs, amend the National Labor Relations Act, right to organize, employee organization efforts.

See also: 1202 illegal activities of labor unions; 1926 International Labor Organization.

(Special Note: Industry-specific observations are coded according to substantive issue area when possible: 1003 FAA regulation of pilot rest periods; 1005 federal mediation of railway employee dispute; 602 teacher strikes.)

505: Fair Labor Standards

Examples: minimum wage regulation for federal contracts, increase the minimum wage rate, enforcement of wage and hour standards, require contractors to pay wages at the rate in locality where the construction occurred, fair labor standards act, application of the fair labor standards act in Puerto Rico, penalties on employers for overtime work requirements, Davis-Bacon Act (or Davis Bacon).

506: Youth Employment, Youth Job Corps Programs, and Child Labor

Examples: youth employment through conservation projects, increase youth participation in job training centers, youth employment regulation and protection, voucher system to promote youth service programs, youth involvement in community service programs, summer youth education and employment programs, job training for disadvantaged youths, summer camps and youth camps (all activities and issues associated with summer and youth camps).

See also: 501 child labor safety.

508: Parental Leave and Child Care

Examples: Family and Medical Leave Act, child care assistance programs, child care for low and moderate income families, meeting the child care needs of working parents, affordability of insurance for day care centers, parental and medical leave, child care placement assistance for working parents, dependent care, dependent and Child care.

529: Migrant and Seasonal workers, Farm Labor Issues

Examples: migrant and seasonal worker housing, national office for migrant farm workers, migrant children’s nutrition and education needs, improvement of migrant living and working conditions, social and economic problems of migrant workers, migrant workers and their effect on American labor, Mexican farm labor programs, migratory labor bills, health clinics for migratory farm workers, farm labor supply programs.

599: Other

Examples: discontinuance of monthly press briefings by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, worker alienation research, materialism and the American family work ethic, DOL automatic data processing system.

6. Education

600: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: Department of Education (DOEd) appropriations, state of education in the U.S., education programs development, education quality, national education methods, impact of education budget cuts, white house conference on education, National Institute of Education.

601: Higher Education

Examples: student loan reform, reauthorization of the higher education act, higher education student financial aid programs, violations of NCAA regulations by some colleges, direct loan programs for graduate students, student loan fraud and default, role and financial need of black colleges and universities, Montgomery GI bill, military education, veterans education assistance, foreign students at U.S. military academies, rising costs of operating higher education institutions, improving the quality of higher education, Pell Grant eligibility changes, status of university endowments in light of federal aid reduction to higher education, national defense education act, Sea Grant and Space Grant programs.

602: Elementary and Secondary Education

Examples: federal elementary and secondary education programs, school finding disparities, education choice programs, high school dropout intervention programs, certification standards for public school teachers, impact of federal budget cuts on school districts, elementary and secondary school student discipline problems, the Safe Schools Act, construction assistance for school facilities, high school scholarship programs, elementary and secondary schools and supplemental educational centers, preschool issues, charter schools, No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), accountability in education, crime and violence in schools, general funding, broad curriculum reforms, broad testing reforms and teaching standards that do not emphasize specific subjects such as math, science, etc.

See also: 607 specific measures under NCLB aimed to increase the quality of education, math and science teacher certification standards.

603: Education of Underprivileged Students

Examples: Head Start programs, teaching disadvantaged students, Even Start Education Act, education needs of Hispanics, bilingual education needs, Department of Education grants to improve skills of economically disadvantaged students, effects of Head Start on later performance, adult literacy programs, combating adult illiteracy in the U.S., Head Start grant allocation formula, education for children from low income homes, enrichment programs for disadvantaged secondary school students, rural education initiatives.

See also: 201 school desegregation efforts.

604: Vocational Education

Examples: appropriations for vocational education programs, federal aid for vocational training, technical and vocational education programs, vocational aid program requirements, impact of proposed budget cuts on vocational education, vocational and occupational education, displaced homemakers vocational and education assistance.

606: Special Education

Examples: education programs for the deaf, DOEd grants for early intervention services for disabled infants and toddlers, appropriations for Education of the Handicapped Act, progress in implementing program for learning disabled youth, handicapped education, free public education for the handicapped, education assistance for the blind, Disabilities Education Act.

607: Educational Excellence

Examples: promotion of excellence in education, promotion of science and math education, education standards and testing, improvement of science education facilities, increase foreign language competency in U.S. schools, programs to promote teacher excellence, grants for improving computer education in schools, establish centers for gifted and talented students, use of telecommunications to share teaching resources, grants for library construction, federal library program developments, public library facilities, teacher certification standards for math and science teachers, subject-specific curriculum, testing standards and/or teaching reforms.

See also: 602 general reform efforts aimed at increasing the quality of education (e.g., NCLB), teacher certification standards for all teachers.

609: Arts and Humanities

Examples: Appropriations for NEA, NEH, Department of Interior loans for performing arts at parks, national endowment for local arts development programs, federal role in funding arts programs, federal funding for the Kennedy Center, White House conferences on the arts and humanities, American folklife.

See also: 1707 public broadcasting; 1798 NSF funding.

698: Research and Development

Examples: education research appropriations, Department of Education research and development programs, research on education technology.

699: Other

Examples: propriety of a videotape made by the Department of Education (DOEd), DOEd internal problems, review National Center for Education Statistics activities, dismissal of Education Appeal Board cases, retirement and lifelong learning.

See also: 2103 school land conveyances.

7. Environment

700: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: EPA, CEQ, ERDA budget requests and appropriations, implementation of the Clean Air Act, implementation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), review of EPA regulations, Environmental Crimes Act, U.S. policies and international environmental issues, requirements for states to provide source pollution management programs, EPA pollution control programs, Comprehensive Environmental Response Act (CERPA), environmental implications of the new energy act, environmental protection and energy conservation, adequacy of EPA budget and staff for implementing pollution control legislation.

701: Drinking Water Safety

Examples: Clean Water Act, EPA water pollution abatement, pesticides in groundwater, lead contamination of drinking water, drinking water safety programs, comprehensive program to assess the quality of the nation’s groundwater, drinking water availability, dioxin levels in drinking water, fluoridation of water, Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

703: Waste Disposal

Examples: interstate waste disposal, solid waste management, federal management of municipal waste, municipal sewage problems, EPA municipal sewage treatment construction grants program, recovery of energy from municipal solid waste, garbage and/or trash collection issues, waste treatment facility, storm water runoff.

704: Hazardous Waste and Toxic Chemical Regulation, Treatment, and Disposal

Examples: EPA administration of the Superfund program, hazardous waste sites cleanup, hazardous materials transportation, international movement of hazardous waste, insurance company liability for cleanup costs of hazardous waste sites, DOT routing of ultra hazardous cargoes, hazardous waste landfills, possible sites for nuclear waste repositories, toxic substances control and regulation, advance notice of hazardous of hazardous material storage for firefighters, pesticides regulation.

705: Air pollution, Global Warming, and Noise Pollution

Examples: Clean Air Act, air quality issues affecting national parks, EPA regulation of chemical plant emissions, costs and effects of chronic exposure to low-level air pollutants, ambient air quality criteria, global warming, national action plan for reducing greenhouse emissions, ozone layer depletion, national program to control acid rain, effects of chlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer, regulation of automobile emissions, EPA noise control programs, CAFE standards, effects of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay.

707: Recycling

Examples: recycling contaminated materials, beverage container recycling, state and local recycling efforts, promotion of recycling as a means of reducing solid waste, resource conservation and recycling.

708: Indoor Environmental Hazards

Examples: radon awareness and disclosure act, indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation, lead exposure reduction, childhood lead poisoning prevention, public school asbestos inspections, management and control of asbestos in government buildings, EPA programs relating to indoor air contamination, airliner cabin air quality, health effects of exposure to low level radiation from video display terminals, EPA regulation of indoor disinfectants.

709: Species and Forest Protection

Examples: endangered species protection act, gray wolf restoration, protection of spotted owls, exotic bird conservation, protection of performance animals, regulation of trapping devices, bald eagle protection, regulation of laboratory animals, fish and wildlife protection and management programs, marine mammal protection, Bristol Bay fisheries protection, salmon conservation issues, sport fish restoration programs, protection of certain tuna species, scientific findings on late-successional forest ecosystems, old growth forest protection, wilderness refuge protection, control of illegal trade in animals and plants.

See also: 405 treatment of domesticated animals or animals under human control; 408 fishery conservation and management; 1902 international agreements on resource/wildlife conservation; 2101 national parks; 2103 public lands management.

710: Pollution and Conservation in Coastal & Other Navigable Waterways

Examples: preservation of wetlands, regulation of ocean dumping, pollution from cruise ships, plastic pollution/invasive species control, marine sanctuaries appropriations, pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, protection of coral reef systems, Columbia river water pollution, coastal barrier improvement, coastal erosion and management, federal and state coastal zone protection policies, toxic pollution in the great lakes, regulation of the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea, oil spills.

See also: 2104 water resources development; 711 pollution in small lakes, rivers, and streams and/or watershed protection.

711: Land and Water Conservation

Examples: watershed protection, including pollution/invasive species in small lakes, rivers, and streams; land and water conservation fund amendments, USDA soil conservation promotion, soil conservation for watershed projects, topsoil conservation standards, water supply problems, federal-state water resources rights with conservation or other environmental dimensions, beach erosion.

See also: 2104 water development projects.

798: Research and Development

Examples: environmental research and development programs, EPA research and development appropriations, global climate change research, ocean research using satellite technology, marine biotechnology research, National Environmental Data System.

799: Other

Examples: Environmental education, environmental citizens, eco-terrorism.

8. Energy

800: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: Department of Energy (DOE) budget requests and appropriations, DOE and NRC budget requests and appropriations, national energy security policy, U.S. energy goals, U.S. energy supply and conservation, regulation of natural gas and electricity, impact of taxation on national energy policy, global energy needs, emergency plans for energy shortages, promotion of energy development projects, long-range energy needs of the U.S., energy capital requirements, establish the DOE, energy advisory committees.

See also: 2104 energy and water development projects.

801: Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issues

Examples: Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Atomic Energy Commission budget requests and appropriations, nuclear power licensing reform, nuclear power plant fire safety legislation, U S. nuclear power policy, safety of nuclear facility storage tanks for high level radioactive waste, revise the claims system for nuclear accidents, standardized design for nuclear power plants, NRC regulation of the TVA nuclear power program, new technologies for safer nuclear reactors, need for international nuclear safety standards, Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, state of the atomic energy industry, atomic energy patents, fusion energy act, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), protection of nuclear plants from attack.

See also: 501 nuclear worker safety; 1614 defense related nuclear waste; 704 nuclear waste.

802: Electricity and Hydroelectricity

Examples: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) budget requests and appropriations, electric power plant construction, hydroelectric project licensing, hydroelectric power development, utility payment reform, FERC licensing of electric power plants, rural electrification programs, ability of rural electric cooperatives to provide adequate power, BPA electric power rates and ratemaking procedures, electric utility rate reform and regulation improvement, regional shortages of electric power, financial management of the TVA, electric utilities financial problems, regulation of electric power plants use of natural gas, vulnerability of U.S. electric power systems to accidents, increase in rural electric rates, emergency sales of electric power, impact of inflation and recession on the electric utility industry.

803: Natural Gas and Oil (Including Offshore Oil and Gas)

Examples: natural gas regulation, natural gas pipeline safety issues, Trans-Alaska pipeline development, natural gas and oil exploration on federal lands, estimates of natural gas reserves in the U.S., state jurisdiction of the transportation of natural gas, process, collection and dissemination of information on winter heating fuels, oil prices and demand, gasoline price increases, OPEC crude oil prices, oil shortages, increase in world oil prices, long-term outlook of the world oil supply, oil imports and foreign commission payments, administration’s gasoline rationing program, oil imports and energy security, foreign oil production and consumption, oil shale mining claims and regulation, estimating domestic oil production, petroleum storage facility fire prevention and safety, strategic petroleum reserve.

See also: 2103 mineral resources of the outer continental shelf; 710 oil spills.

805: Coal

Examples: DOE clean coal program, clean coal technologies, regulation of coal slurry pipelines, extent and recoverably of U.S. coal reserves, Great Plains coal gasification project, regulation of federal land leases for the extraction of coal, federal standards for surface coal mining, coal imports.

806: Alternative and Renewable Energy

Examples: hydrogen and renewable energy programs, promotion of solar and geothermal power, promotion of alternative fuels for automobiles, issues of ethanol gasoline, biomass fuel and wind energy programs, ocean thermal energy research, solar energy development program, assistance for the Synthetic Fuel Development Corporation, loans for alcohol fuel research, geothermal leases on federal lands, hydrogen programs.

807: Energy Conservation

Examples: energy efficiency in the U.S. government, home energy efficiency programs, community energy efficiency act, energy conservation in cities, energy conservation standards for household appliances, establish building energy performance standards, diesel fuel and gasoline conservation act, promotion of carpooling, daylight savings time extensions, motor vehicle fuel efficiency.

898: Research and Development:

Examples: national energy research and development policy, DOE energy technology research and development, energy storage research and development programs, role of national laboratories in energy research and development, hydrogen research and design programs.

899: Other

Examples: DOE and EPA use of consultants, energy materials and equipment allocation, standby energy authorities legislation, future requirements for energy data, establish the institute for long-range energy analysis.

9. Immigration

900: Immigration and Refugee Issues

Examples: immigration of Cuban refugees to the U.S., refugee resettlement appropriations, HHS authority over immigration and public health, INS enforcement of immigration laws, legalization procedures for illegal immigrants, assessment of Haitian refugee detention by the U.S., immigration and education issues for aliens, adjusting visa allocations based on applicant job skills, DOL certification process for foreign engineers working in the U.S., denial of visas to political refugees, appropriations for the INS, citizenship issues, expedited citizenship for military service.

See also: 529 migrant and seasonal workers; 1524 tourism; 1929 passport issues.

10. Transportation

1000: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: Department of Transportation (DOT) and National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requests and appropriations, budget requests and appropriations for multiple agencies (NTSB, FAA, CAB), surface transportation programs, national transportation policy, rural transportation needs, adequacy of transportation systems, Interstate Commerce Commission policies and procedures, impact of budget cuts on DOT programs, highway and mass transit programs, transportation assistance programs, high-speed ground transportation systems.

See also: 1003 budget requests and appropriations for FAA and CAB.

1001: Mass Transportation and Safety

Examples: mass transit grant programs, development of new urban public bus system, financial condition of the intercity bus industry, emergency subsidies to urban mass transportation programs, metrorail safety, public transportation.

1002: Highway Construction, Maintenance, and Safety

Examples: National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) budget requests and appropriations, federal aid for highway construction, highway safety and design, highway trust fund surplus, national maximum speed limit laws, pavement deterioration of highways in Florida, freeway problems in California, federal funding for bridge maintenance projects, highway user taxes, defense highway needs, control of advertising on interstate highways, infrastructure development, bridges, National Highway Academy, highway beautification programs, adding trees and plants along highways.

1003: Airports, Airlines, Air Traffic Control and Safety

Examples: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) budget requests and appropriations, aviation safety issues, financial condition of the airline industry, uses of satellite technology in aviation, FAA delay in procurement of air traffic control equipment, development of new commercial aircraft, commercial air service restrictions, airline compliance with FAA safety regulations, nationwide airport expansion needs, FAA air traffic controller standards, airlines fares and services, airplane crash liability standards, problems with airline computer reservation systems, air traffic control computer failures, oversight of CAB practices and procedures, CAB regulation of charter air carriers, rates and fares of foreign air transportation, federal airport construction aid, civil aviation academy.

1005: Railroad Transportation and Safety

Examples: AMTRAK budget requests and appropriations, federal railroad safety inspection and enforcement programs, development of high speed passenger rail transportation, growth of regional railroads, sales of short line and regional railroads, ICC rail rate regulation, AMTRAK passenger safety issues, freight rail industry regulation, Northeast Rail Service Act, shortage of railroad cars for commodity transportation, revitalization of Northeast Corridor rail properties, railroad deregulation.

1006: Truck and Automobile Transportation and Safety

Examples: trucking industry regulation, establish a national system of licensing for truck and bus drivers, truck safety audit and investigation procedures, prohibition of tandem trucks, size and weight limitations for trucks on interstate, impact of federal regulations on independent truckers, long and short haul trucking provisions, regulation of freight forwarders, ICC regulation of the trucking industry, motor vehicle safety issues, auto industry development of airbags, motor vehicle information programs, automobile safety belt usage, automobile crash testing and standards, economic status of automobile manufacturing, all-terrain vehicle safety, trucking industry deregulation, efforts to reduce drunk driving.

See also: 705 automobile emissions regulation, automobile CAFE standards.

1007: Maritime Issues, Including Safety and Security

Examples: U.S. Coast Guard, Merchant Marine, and Federal Maritime Commission budget requests and appropriations, cargo liability limits and the carriage of goods by sea, cargo preference laws, revitalization of the maritime industry, commercial fishing vessel safety, navigation safety issues, cruise ship safety, commercial shipbuilding industry, navy policies on transportation of military cargo by Merchant Marine, financing construction of merchant ships, maritime freight industry regulation, intercoastal shipping act, regulation of ocean shipping rates, Great Lakes pilotage, small boat safety, Coast Guard operation of ocean weather stations, navigation rules on inland waterways, designation and naming of channels, designation and naming of vessels.

See also: 1902 international fishing and wildlife agreements; 1915 Panama Canal; 2104 port development and construction.

1010: Public Works (Infrastructure Development)

Examples: budget requests and appropriations for public works and civil works projects, transportation infrastructure improvements, public works investment needs, local public works employment projects, local public works capital development and investment act, Public Works Acceleration Act.

See also: 800 energy projects; 2104 water projects.

1098: Research and Development

Examples: surface transportation research and development, DOE requests for transportation research and development funding, research and development in ground transportation.

1099: Other

Examples: metric signing on highways.

12. Law, Crime, and Family Issues

1200: General (includes combinations of multiple subtopics)

Examples: emerging criminal justice issues, administration of criminal justice, revision of the criminal justice system, role of the U.S. commissioner in the criminal justice system.

1201: Executive Branch Agencies Dealing With Law and Crime

Examples: Judiciary, Department of Justice (DOJ), FBI, ATF, Border Patrol and Customs budget requests and appropriations, U.S. federal marshals witness protection program, review of FBI programs, improving criminal justice information systems at the state and local level, computerizing criminal records for nationwide law enforcement access, law enforcement assistance programs, ATF gang information network, debt collection by the DOJ, Secret Service protection of government officials.

(Special Note: For issues related to the Department of Homeland Security and domestic terrorism prevention efforts see the coding guidelines above.)

1202: White Collar Crime and Organized Crime

Examples: Asian organized crime activities in the U.S., racketeering control, organized crime in Atlantic City, organized crime in labor unions, white collar crime in the oil industry, RICO penalties, gambling and organized crime, president’s commission on organized crime, credit card counterfeiting and fraud legislation, corporate criminal liability, prosecution of organized crime labor racketeering cases, cigarette bootlegging, general money laundering, efforts to counter cyber-crime.

See also: 1203 drug related money laundering.

1203: Illegal Drug Production, Trafficking, and Control

Examples: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) appropriations, national drug control strategy, federal interagency cooperation in drug control border drug interdiction, international narcotics control strategy, status of DEA drug interdiction programs, U.S.--South American drug control strategy and cooperation, airborne drug trafficking deterrence, U.S. military involvement in drug interdiction, Coast Guard drug confiscation and search policies, drug trafficking and money laundering, money laundering detection and penalties, federal seizure of drug related property, drug trafficking in New York City, crack-cocaine trafficking in Delaware, legalization of drugs, the relationship between drug trafficking and crime, criminal penalties for drug trafficking.

See also: 1202 general money laundering (non-drug related).

1204: Court Administration

Examples: Judiciary budget requests and appropriations, federal courts administration act, restructuring district courts, construction of new federal courthouse, administration of the federal courts, reorganization of federal courts, reducing the workload of the Supreme Court, reform grand jury procedures, time limits for federal criminal cases, capital punishment procedures, effectiveness of the pretrial services agency, oversight of the Legal Services Corporation, jurisdiction of lawsuits made by foreigners on U.S. companies, criminal fine collection efforts, conditions for pre-trial release, bail guidelines and bail reform, establish and office of the public defender, Supreme Court issues, criminal records, legal services issues, confer jurisdiction upon Court of Claims (with no specific references to other subject matter), judicial pay.

(Special Note: many issues fall within this category regarding court administration so do not be surprised if you use this category many times during coding.)

See also: 1205 parole issues; 1210 criminal sentencing requirements and civil suit guidelines.

1205: Prisons

Examples: Federal Bureau of Prisons appropriations and budget requests, Federal Bureau of Prisons programs, halfway house contracts, alternatives to traditional incarceration for criminal offenders, prisoner ‘boot’ camp proposals, prison overcrowding, prison construction plans and policy, prison violence, shortcomings of the correction system, reform of the present parole system, national correction standards, penal reform.

1206: Juvenile Crime and the Juvenile Justice System

Examples: violent crime involving youth, juvenile justice and delinquency prevention act, juvenile court system, youth criminal activity, homeless and runaway youth assistance programs, adolescent drug use and related criminal activity, juvenile delinquency prevention programs, correlation of unemployment and the crime rate for youth, alternatives to juvenile incarceration, detention and jailing of juveniles, Institute for juvenile justice, institute for continuing studies of juvenile justice, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act.

1207: Child Abuse and Child Pornography

Examples: child abuse prevention, national child search system, regulation of child pornography, violence against children, sexual exploitation of children, problems and incidence of missing children, federal efforts to relocate missing children, sexual abuse of children in day care homes, parental kidnapping of their children.

1208: Family Issues

Examples: court-ordered child support, battered women and child custody legislation, state of child welfare services, adoption and foster care programs, domestic violence, federal family planning programs, impact of drugs on children and families, aid for abandoned infants and children, teenage pregnancy issues, teenage suicide prevention, family services support for adoption, family economic problems, consequences of divorce, elderly abuse, domestic violence, child tax credits.

1209: Police, Fire, and Weapons Control

Examples: Federal financial assistance to state and local law enforcement, rights of police officers during internal investigations, police misconduct, neighborhood crime reduction programs, arson prevention, handgun control, revise federal gun control laws, seven-day waiting periods for handgun sales, control of explosives, establishment of a national police academy.

1210: Criminal and Civil Code

Examples: revisions of the federal criminal code, federal crime sentencing disparities, hate crimes sentencing enhancement act, federal rape law reform, judicial sentencing in narcotics cases, sentencing in capital cases, criminal penalties for assaults on firemen and policemen, proposals to abolish the death penalty, apply federal law to crimes committed on aircraft, civil penalty guidelines and limitations, criminal justice statistics, habeas corpus reform.

1211: Riots, Crime Prevention, and Crime Control

Examples: programs to prevent crimes against women, crimes against the elderly, deterring auto theft, violent crime control, national crime survey, federal criminal diversion programs, compensation programs for victims of violent crime, causes of urban riots and civil disturbances.

See also: 1208 domestic violence.

1299: Other

13. Social Welfare

1300: General

Examples: Health and Human Services (HHS) and Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) appropriations and budget requests, administration’s welfare reform proposals, effectiveness of federal and state public welfare programs, social services proposals, public assistance programs, effects of economic and social deprivation on the psychology of underprivileged persons, social security and welfare benefits reforms, related state and local issues.

See also: 300 HHS appropriations specific to health; 300 HEW appropriations specific to health; 600 HEW appropriations specific to education.

1301: Food Stamps, Food Assistance, and Nutrition Monitoring Programs

Examples: USDA grants to states for women, infant and children (WIC) supplemental food program, childhood hunger relief, child nutrition programs, consumer nutrition awareness, food stamp abuse and fraud, approach to the U.S. hunger problem, USDA school breakfast/lunch program, malnutrition problems among the elderly, food assistance for low income families, coordinate USDA and HHS programs for nutrition monitoring, USDA food programs for the homeless, administration task force on food assistance, food stamp reductions, special milk program eligibility for public schools, national nutrition policy study, food assistance for the elderly, national school lunch act.

See also: 331 the role of diets in disease prevention.

1302: Poverty and Assistance for Low-Income Families and Individuals

Examples: Economic Opportunity Act antipoverty programs, programs to alleviate long-term welfare dependency, examine proposals to reform Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, needs of disadvantaged children from low-income families, efforts of Southern states to reduce poverty, mandatory work and training programs for welfare recipients, promotion of economic self-sufficiency for single mothers receiving AFDC benefits, HHS low-income energy assistance programs, budget cut impact on AFDC programs, general or cross-cutting issues related to Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

(Special Note: AFDC issues go in this category even if it also refers to Social Security Act or Administration (Title IV), child welfare issues associated with Social Security Act go in this category as well, Earned Income Tax credit.)

See also: 1204 legal assistance for the poor.

1303: Elderly Issues and Elderly Assistance Programs (Including Social Security Administration)

Examples: contributions into the social security fund, Older Americans Act, revise social security retirement earnings test, social security system filing problems, SSA procedures for handling claims for denied benefits, improve social security benefits for older women, social services for the elderly, management of the social security trust funds surplus, reduction of social security benefits, elderly assistance programs under the older Americans act, problems and needs of elderly women, cost of living adjustments for social security benefits, impact of budget cuts on the elderly, social security financing issues, energy cost assistance for the elderly, needs of rural elderly.

(Special Note: Omnibus legislation which includes multiple topics under Social Security goes in this category. In addition, specific topics such as changes to the SSA for the purpose of child welfare, housing, etc. should be coded in those more precise subtopics. Observations with no specific references to health care but are SS related, should be coded in this subtopic.)

See also: 1301 elderly nutrition assistance programs; 1408 elderly housing.

1304: Assistance to the Disabled and Handicapped

Examples: residential living programs for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled, revision of aid to handicapped, technologies for assisting disabled persons, HHS grants for persons with chronic disabilities, needs of the elderly blind, rehabilitation assistance for disabled, programs for the deaf and hearing impaired, independent living programs for the handicapped, federal aid for the mentally ill and retarded, aid to physically handicapped, Randolph-Sheppard Act for the blind.

See also: 205 handicapped access to federal buildings.

1305: Social Services and Volunteer Associations

Examples: domestic volunteer service programs, youth volunteer programs, community volunteer programs, providing volunteer services for the elderly, ACTION agency older Americans volunteer programs, federal management of volunteer services, national meals-on-wheels programs, state social services programs, boy scouts of America, older worker community service programs, boys and girls clubs.

See also: 1929 Peace Corps.

1399: Other

14. Community Development and Housing Issues

1400: General

Examples: Housing and Urban Development (HUD) budget requests and appropriations, housing and the housing market, HUD policy goals, building construction standards, future of the housing industry, national housing assistance legislation, administration and operation of national housing programs, housing safety standards.

1401: Housing and Community Development

Examples: HUD housing and community development programs, HUD loans for neighborhood revitalization efforts, HUD block grants, neighborhood development and preservation, housing and urban development, National Housing Act, making repairs and improvements to a residence.

See also: 1403 urban economic development; 1405 rural economic development.

1403: Urban Economic Development and General Urban Issues

Examples: urban enterprise zones, local partnership act, economic development needs of urban areas, community reinvestment act, urban revitalization, economic problems in various cities, national urban policy, effects of budget cuts on cities, federal role in dealing with urban decline, reducing urban sprawl, New York City financial bailout, model cities programs.

See also: 2001 intergovernmental relations.

1404: Rural Housing and FmHA Housing Assistance Programs

Examples: management of FmHA rural housing assistance program, FmHA home loan appeals procedure, shortages of low-income rural housing, housing credit needs in rural areas, FmHA management problems, agriculture real estate loans, FmHA farm loans.

See also: 1405 rural economic development.

1405: Rural Economic Development

Examples: credit assistance and availability for rural economic development, investment in rural areas, rural conditions, Appalachian Regional Development Commission, Economic Development Administration assistance, rural development oversight, economic and social problems of rural America, rural community development.

See also: 802 rural electricity development, 1706 rural telephone development.

1406: Low and Middle Income Housing Programs and Needs

Examples: housing affordability problems of low and moderate income families, federal housing assistance programs, low-income housing shortages, condominium conversion trends and housing affordability, rent control, deficiencies in public housing projects, budget renewal for HUD’s Section 8 program, alleged mismanagement of HUD programs, tenant-management initiatives in public housing projects, HUD management of multi-family housing programs, security in public housing, neighborhood preservation, slum clearance and related problems, multifamily housing projects, housing affordability and availability.

See also: 200 fair housing initiatives and discrimination in housing; 1408 elderly housing.

1407: Veterans Housing Assistance and Military Housing Programs

Examples: VA home loan guaranty program, use of national service life insurance funds to underwrite mortgage loans to veterans, VA mortgage foreclosures, veterans emergency housing act, low cost rental housing for veterans, sale of permanent war housing to veterans, substandard housing of military personnel, housing in military areas, defense housing act.

See also: 1608 on-base military housing.

1408: Elderly and Handicapped Housing

Examples: Elderly housing needs, housing shortages and the elderly, alternative approaches to housing for the elderly, condominiums and the elderly, housing facilities for the elderly and handicapped, adequacy of federal response to housing needs of older Americans.

1409: Housing Assistance for Homeless and Homeless Issues

Examples: permanent housing for the homeless, federal aid for the homeless, Homeless Outreach Act, assistance for homeless veterans, lack of housing for homeless and low-income groups, use of emergency assistance funds for housing for homeless families, extent and causes of homelessness in the U.S.

See also: 603 education of homeless children.

1410: Secondary Mortgage Market

Examples: FHA mortgage insurance fund, soundness of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and FANNIE MAE, abuses of FHA mortgage programs, mortgage marketing and mortgage credit, FHA to insure loans for residential mobile home purchases, examine the secondary mortgage market for industrial mortgages, FHA mortgage foreclosure procedures.

See also: 1504 consumer mortgages.

1499: Other

Examples: architectural competition, cellulose home insulation.

15. Banking, Finance, and Domestic Commerce

1500: General

Examples: Department of Commerce (DOC) and National Bureau of Standards (NBS) budget requests and appropriations, financial system structure and regulation, DOC reorganization plan, national materials policy, regulatory sunshine act, federal regulation of the economy, Interstate Commerce Act.

See also: 1800 Federal Trade Commission.

1501: U.S. Banking System and Financial Institution Regulation

Examples: Regulatory burden on financial institutions, FDIC and Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) policies, interstate banking efficiency, RTC procedures for disposal of assets of failed savings and loan banks, FDIC bank insurance fund, banking regulation reform, failed federally insured savings and loan associations, need for financial service industry restructuring, financial institution fraud investigations, savings and loan crisis, FSLIC acquisition of insolvent savings and loan associations, uniform standards for saving institution advertising, standards for U.S. commercial bank foreign loan transactions, Federal Reserve regulation on check clearing systems--limit length of time that banks can hold checks, financial institution deregulation, electronic fund transfer act, interest rate regulation on savings accounts, national credit union administration, operation of federal intermediate credit banks, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Federal Credit Union Act, Bank Holding Company Act, financial services industry reform.

See also: 104 Federal Reserve Board issues; 1525 Truth-in-Lending Act; 1202 prosecution of financial institution crimes.

1502: Securities and Commodities Regulation

Examples: Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) budget requests and appropriations, regulation of commodity markets, federal securities regulations, securities laws violations, regulation of commercial bank involvement in the securities market, SEC regulation of corporate bonds, examine stock market volatility problems, municipal bond market regulation, commodity futures trading commission, growth of money market mutual funds, pension fund investment policies, protection for securities investors, amend the Securities Exchange Act, regulation of mutual fund investment companies, commodities, Public Utility Holding Company Act.

1504: Consumer Finance, Mortgages, and Credit Cards

Examples: mortgage financing reform, consumer credit protection, real estate settlement procedures, consumer access to credit records, consumer information on credit card interest rates, consumer information on mortgage settlement costs, fraud and abuse among credit repair agencies, adjustable rate mortgages, regulation of credit card solicitations, inaccurate credit bureau information reporting procedures, Credit Control Act.

See also: 1410 government mortgage programs.

1505: Insurance Regulation

Examples: fraud and abuse in the insurance industry, insurance industry financial status, effectiveness of state regulation of insurance companies, insurance company failures, automobile insurance affordability and availability, no-fault motor vehicle insurance, life insurance industry regulation, sales of commercial life insurance on military bases, product liability insurance rates.

See also: 1523 flood and earthquake insurance.

1507: Bankruptcy

Examples: reform of consumer bankruptcy laws, professional fees in bankruptcy cases, bankruptcy code reform, depositor treatment in bankruptcy proceedings of uninsured financial institutions, bankruptcy regulation for farm families, municipal bankruptcy.

See also: 1204 bankruptcy courts; 530 employee benefits during bankruptcy; 1003 bankruptcies in airline industry.

1520: Corporate Mergers, Antitrust Regulation, and Corporate Management Issues

Examples: unfair competition in the tourism industry, meatpacking industry concentration, intellectual property antitrust protection, Sherman Antitrust Act, vertical price-fixing restrictions, price fixing agreements, monopoly problems in regulated industries, limited partnership regulations, foreign acquisition of U S. firms, corporate management structure, hostile corporate takeovers, seed-money corporations, Clayton Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

See also: 1501 banking deregulation; 1003 airline deregulation; 1005 railroad deregulation; 1006 trucking deregulation; 1706 telephone deregulation; 1526 sports regulation; 803 oil industry deregulation; 1505 insurance industry regulation.

1521: Small Business Issues and the Small Business Administration

Examples: Small Business Administration (SBA) budget requests and appropriations promoting small business exports, small business credit availability problems, health insurance cost burden on small businesses, government assistance to small business, federal set aside contracts for small business, small business competitiveness under current liability laws, problems of small businesses complying with EPA regulations, SBA loans to small businesses, impact of deregulation on small trucking businesses, SBA implementation of small business programs for veterans, promotion of women in small business, impact of product liability costs on small business, increases in small business failures, impact of federal regulations on small business, access to capital for small business, government competition with small business.

See also: 1523 small business disaster loan programs; 201 SBA minority business programs; 1609 VA small business loans.

1522: Copyrights and Patents

Examples: Patent and Trademark Office appropriations, copyrights and telecommunication, biotechnology patent protection, intellectual property rights, copyright infringement remedies, industrial design protection, patents for inventions made in space, copyright protection for computer software, music copyrights, piracy of intellectual property, patent application procedures, trademark use and clarification, home recording of copyrighted material, performance royalties, patent office fees.

1523: Domestic Disaster Relief

Examples: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) budget requests and appropriations, aid for flood disasters, national flood insurance reform, earthquake preparedness, FEMA disaster planning and relief operations, FEMA civil defense programs, FEMA--national fire academy training programs, SBA disaster loans, interest rates on disaster loans, emergency credit extension to farmers in disaster areas, hurricane protection projects, early warning systems, drought relief, establishment of a national fire academy.

1524: Tourism

Examples: White House conference on tourism, promotion of tourism in the U.S., using tourism to promote development of rural economies, problems for foreign visitors, status of U.S. tourism industry, national tourism programs, regulation of travel agents.

See also: 530 immigration and refugee issues; 1929 passport issues.

1525: Consumer Safety and Consumer Fraud

Examples: Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) budget requests and appropriations, deceptive mailings and solicitations, consumer reporting reform, auto repair fraud, state consumer protection standards, federal standards for product liability, child car seat safety, infomercials and consumer protection, deceptive ads in the diet industry, telemarketing fraud, debt collection and consumer abuse, penalties for consumer product tampering, the consumer protection advocacy movement, Truth-in-Lending Act, labeling of alcoholic beverages, regulation of deceptive practices in the funeral industry, cosmetic safety, false and misleading advertising, consumer affairs, control of flammable fabrics.

See also: 708 protection from indoor radiation hazards; 1504 fraudulent land sales.

1526: Sports and Gambling Regulation

Examples: regulation of greyhound racing, health and safety standards for boxing, promotion of professional standards for boxing, regulation of gambling on vessels, , regulation of interstate horse racing, status of amateur sports in the U.S., antitrust immunity for professional sports teams, President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, use of performance enhancing drugs in sports.

1599: Other

Examples: conversion to the metric system, emergency chlorine allocation, uniform time standards.

16. Defense

1600: General

Examples: Department of Defense budget requests and appropriations (DOD), Department of the Air Force, Army, or Navy appropriations, armed services bills covering multiple subtopics, DOD operations and maintenance, defense production act, reorganization of the DOD, status of the national military establishment, establishment of the DOD, funding for defense activities of DOE, termination or designation of special defense areas.

See also: 1701 NASA\DOD issues.

1602: U.S. and Other Defense Alliances, U.S Security Assistance

Examples: NATO strategy and U.S. military presence in Europe, Japan-U.S. joint military operations, mutual security acts, changes in the Soviet Union and the future of NATO, NATO defense capabilities in Europe, Warsaw Pact status, Soviet Union and China defense and economic development needs, Soviet strategic force developments, U.S. military commitments to NATO, NATO military equipment, Southeast Asia collective defense treaty, inter-American military cooperation act, security assistance, UN peace-keeping activities.

1603: Military Intelligence, CIA, Espionage

Examples: foreign economic espionage, U.S. intelligence reorganization, congressional oversight of U.S. covert intelligence activities, DOD security review commission, intelligence activities of Soviet-bloc diplomats, CIA funds for the support of Nicaraguan rebels, leaks of classified defense information, national intelligence act, CIA estimates of Soviet defense spending, role of the national security advisor, foreign intelligence electronic surveillance, organized subversion in the U.S. armed forces, communist bloc intelligence activities in the U.S., CIA illegal involvement in Chile, testimony of a KGB defector, intelligence reports on the necessity of ABM missile deployment, workings of the Cuban intelligence network, recent Soviet navy and military activities in Europe, CIA employee retirement and disability system, U.S defense strategies, national security acts, national security council briefings, threats to U.S. interests, Soviet Union and China military capabilities.

1604: Military Readiness, Coordination of Armed Services Air Support and Sealift Capabilities, and National Stockpiles of Strategic Materials

Examples: DOD plans for modernization of nuclear forces, military sealift performance in the Persian Gulf War, defense mobilization requirements of domestic industries, DOD efforts to improve defense communication systems, national defense stockpiles, modernization requirements, integration of military traffic management and military sealift command, U.S. military readiness, DOD combat readiness programs, DOD mobility fuel requirements, fleet readiness, test and evaluation of the armed forces, shortages of essential materials, stockpiling of critical materials, disposal of various stockpiled materials, military air transportation readiness, production of fluorspar.

See also: 803 strategic petroleum reserves; 1616 defense industry.

1605: Arms Control and Nuclear Nonproliferation

Examples: Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) budget requests and appropriations, nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, destruction of nuclear weapons in the Soviet Union, North Korean nuclear program, U.S. arms control policies, nonproliferation of chemical weapons, nuclear testing moratorium, DOE export controls of nuclear production material, arms export controls, arms reduction agreements between NATO and the Warsaw Pact, international ban on chemical weapons, global spread of chemical and biological weapons, prevention of sale of weapons system to Japan, START arms control treaty, conventional forces reduction, violation of arms control agreements, nuclear proliferation in developing countries, implication of INF treaty for NATO, Soviet Salt II treaty violations, UN report on nuclear proliferation, arms trade in the western hemisphere, nuclear exports to India, U.S.-Soviet arms race control, EURATOM agreements, atomic weapons research and development, Arms Export Control Act revisions.

See also: 1803 chemical and advanced technologies export control.

1606: Military Aid and Weapons Sales to other Countries

Examples: military assistance to other countries, conventional arms sales policies, sale of f-15 aircraft, commercial military sales, donation of an obsolete aircraft carrier, proposed sale of weapons, DOD costs related to sales of military equipment to foreign countries, sale of decommissioned ships.

See also: 1901 economic and military aid

1608: Manpower, Military Personnel and Dependents (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines), Military Courts

Examples: DOD authorization requests for armed forces personnel strength levels, military personnel issues, child care programs at military installations, armed forces staffing requirements, imminent danger pay for those serving in the Persian gulf, DOD morale, welfare, and recreation programs, DOD officer promotion procedures, shortage of affordable housing for military families, benefits for military retiree spouses, special pay to encourage personnel retention, survivor benefit plans, defense officer personnel management act, status of army manpower, selective service system funding, unionization of military personnel, enlistment bonuses for service in a critical skill, increase flight pay for military aviators, recruiting and retention of military personnel, life insurance for military personnel, various personnel issues during W.W.II, Americans missing or prisoner in Asia, POW’s in Vietnam, live sightings of U.S. prisoners of war, retired military personnel issues, military court martial, transportation of armed forces, air travel of armed forces, mail for armed forces, mail for servicemen, defense department overseas teachers pay and issues.

See also: 601 GI Bill and military academies.

1609: Veteran Affairs and Other Issues

Examples: veterans programs budget requests, veteran’s benefit claims, VA national cemetery system, illness of Persian Gulf veterans, disabled veterans compensation, VA board of appeals adjudication procedures, VA benefits eligibility, compensation for veterans, cost of living adjustments for veterans, delays in processing veterans claims, problems faced by Vietnam era veterans, federal services for women veterans, VA life insurance programs, reorganization of veteran’s food service operations, small business loans to veterans, consolidation of the veterans administration, veterans readjustment assistance act, veterans pay, veterans transportation issues.

See also: 300 series for veterans health care (.3 denotes military or veterans health); 601 veterans education benefits; 1407 veterans housing; 1409 homeless veterans; 2008 designating/naming Veterans Administration hospitals and medical centers; 1608 on-base military housing and retired military personnel; 502 for job training.

1610: Military Procurement and Weapons System Acquisitions and Evaluation

Examples: DOD budget requests and appropriations for procurement of weapons, DOD procurement process, DOD aircraft procurement, funding for the B-2, shipbuilding and conversion programs, weapons system testing and evaluation, DOD contracting for support services, procurement of the Navy SSN-21 attack submarine, DOD purchasing and control of military supplies, contracting out of core logistic activities, M-16 rifle procurement program, health of strategic U.S. Industries.

See also: 1617 oversight of defense contractors and contractor fraud; 1604 adequacy of supplies.

1611: Military Installations, Construction, and Land Transfers

Examples: military construction budget requests and appropriations, military construction programs, DOD commissary system, military lands withdraw, national war college restoration act, Fort Hood land acquisition, expansion of U.S. military bases in Spain, construction of bridges by the military, management of military clubs, military land conveyances, military real estate projects, national defense facilities act, military housing supplies, disposal of military property, construction of ordinance facilities, DOD real estate acquisitions, disposal of synthetic rubber facilities, sale of military stores to civilian employees, war plants disposal.

1612: National Guard and Reserve Affairs

Examples: reserve officer personnel management, army reserve force structure, deactivation problems of reserve units participating in Desert Storm, management of military reserve vessels, management of reserve air fleet, national guard tort claims, survivor benefits for reservists, reserve members payments for life insurance, national guard retirement credit, reserve pay, flight training for ROTC, status of reserve facilities, promotion system for reserve officers, composition of the naval reserve.

See also: 601 ROTC college education.

1614: Military Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Disposal, Military Environmental Compliance

Examples: environmental crimes at rocky flats nuclear weapons facility, radioactive and chemical contamination at nuclear weapons facility, disposal of defense related wastes, hazardous waste identification at military bases, navy shipboard waste disposal policy, nuclear site decontamination, DOD compliance with the clean air act, DOE nuclear weapons hazardous waste management, army disposal of chemical weapons stockpile, DOD shipment of toxic chemicals by rail, radioactive spills at an air force base, uranium mill tailings radiation control act, environmental impacts of MX missile siting.

See also: 704 nonmilitary hazardous waste disposal.

1615: Civil Defense & Homeland Security

Examples: radiological emergency planning, civil reserve air fleet, federal civil defense act, effects of limited nuclear warfare, federal fallout shelter construction, civil defense air raid shelter program, civil defense for national survival, civil air patrol, dept. of the army appropriations for civil functions, Dept. Homeland Security and related functions, DHS and efforts to prevent domestic terrorism within U.S. borders.

(Special Note: for issues related to the Department of Homeland Security and domestic terrorism prevention efforts see the general coding guidelines above.)

See also: 1523 FEMA domestic (weather related) disaster relief.

1616: DOD Civilian Personnel, Civilian Employment by the Defense Industry, Military Base Closings

Examples: assist workers affected by defense spending cuts, assist communities affected by DOD facilities closures, peacetime conversion of defense industry, base closure recommendations, maintenance of the U.S. defense industrial base, defense industry employment, protection of DOD civilian employees, closure of overseas military bases.

1617: Oversight of Defense Contracts and Contractors

Examples: defense contract audit agency, management and pricing of DOD defense contracts, overpricing by DOD contractors, defense procurement fraud, DOD inventory control system problems, defense contractor financial data reporting requirements, inventory control and accounting procedures used Bell Helicopter, DOD employees ethics program, DOD contractors health insurance reimbursement policy, prosecution of fraudulent defense contractors, problem of product substitution by defense contractors, establish system for documenting defense contractor performance, fraud/cost overruns at General Dynamics, quality assurance problems at Hughes missile production facility, Navy spare parts procurement overpricing, DOD contract profit policy, DOD contract award procedures, review of military catalogue supply system, employment of DOD personnel by defense contractors.

1619: Direct War Related Issues and Foreign Operations

Examples: appropriations for military operations in Vietnam, U.S. relations with Laos, cost of the Vietnam War, impact of the Vietnam War, war-related civilian problems in Laos and Cambodia, air war against North Vietnam, Gulf of Tonkin incidents, U.S-Laotian security relations, military strategy in the Korean War, military supplies and equipment in Korean War, ammunition shortage in Korean War, Korean War mobilization programs, prisoners of war, Geneva convention for protection of POW’s, elimination of German resources for war, shipment of war relief supplies, Pearl Harbor attack, war assets administration, investigation of the Katyn Forest massacre.

See also: 1620 settlement of war related claims against the U.S. Government.

1620: Relief of Claims Against U.S. Military:

Examples: refunds or settlements for military dependents, relief of citizen injuries caused by the military, refunds for veterans, return of confiscated property, settlement of damage claims caused by war, settlement of foreign claims against military.

See also: 1929 International or Foreign Claims Act; Foreign Claims Settlement Commission; 2015 claims against the U.S. Government.

1698: Research and Development

Examples: DOD budget requests and appropriations for research and development, advanced materials research, laser technology, R&D on aerospace plane, office of Naval research, tilt rotor technology, DOD testing of airborne radar jammer, nuclear weapons R&D.

1699: Other

Examples: issues arising from the explosion aboard the U.S.S. Iowa, resolution honoring a DOD staff director, army helicopter safety, government liability for atomic weapons testing, army food irradiation program, military commemorative legislation, including the award of military medals and commemoratives, Congressional Gold Medals for military personnel, incorporate American War Mothers.

See also: 2101 military parks and memorials.

17. Space, Science, Technology and Communications

1700: General

Examples: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Office of Science and Technology Policy budget requests and appropriations, science and engineering personnel requirements for the 1990s, U.S. technology policy, FCC oversight review, reorganization of the FCC, national engineering and science policy, automation and technological change, FCC regulation of multiple subtopics (TV, telephone, cable, etc.).

See also: 1798 NSF research funding.

1701: NASA, U.S. Government Use of Space, Space Exploration Agreements

Examples: NASA budget requests and appropriations, NASA administrative issues, president’s proposal for the space station Freedom, costs of the space station, policy goals for NASA space programs, problems with the Hubble Space Telescope, nuclear power and space exploration, review the space shuttle Challenger accident, international space policy, shuttle deployment of satellites, U.S. space cooperation with the Soviets, NASA satellite communications, Skylab 1 mechanical difficulties, Apollo 16 mission report, status of the Apollo program, NASA-DOD space programs budget requests and appropriations, DOD-NASA national aerospace plane program, NASA and DOD space launch vehicle requirements, prototype construction of a commercial supersonic transport airplane, DOD use of space.

1704: Commercial Use of Space, Satellites

Examples: international competition in space launch services, U.S. commercial space launch industry, Landsat satellite sale to private sector, encourage private sector development of satellite launch vehicles, status of private investment in space activities, solar power satellite research, earth resources technology satellite program, communication satellites.

See also: 1707 satellite TV broadcasting; 1708 weather satellites.

1705: Science Technology Transfer, International Scientific Cooperation

Examples: technology transfer improvements act, technology transfer barriers and limitations, science cooperation between U.S. and Latin America, U.S.-East European cooperation in science research, U.S. policy of cooperation with foreign countries on science and technology, international science cooperation, technology transfer from the U.S. government to private industry, U.S.-Japan agreement to conduct more joint science and technology research, Department of Commerce technology transfer activities, international support for supercollider program, university and industry cooperation for technological advancements, create a national scientific information data processing center.

See also: 1803 restrictions on exports of high technology.

1706: Telephone and Telecommunication Regulation

Examples: national communications infrastructure, mobile communications, telephone network reliability, unauthorized switching of consumers to long distance carriers, international communications regulation, FCC regulation of 1-900 numbers, telecommunication development in rural areas, AT&T regulation, FCC regulation of telephone rates, review FCC awarding of cellular licenses, regulation of interstate telecommunications, FCC regulatory practice in telecommunications, dial-a-porn regulation.

See also: 208 telephone privacy; 1525 telephone marketing fraud.

1707: Broadcast Industry Regulation (TV, Cable, Radio)

Examples: Public Broadcasting Corporation budget requests and appropriations, FCC regulation of cable, reallocation of radio frequencies from federal to private sector use, FCC regulation of radio, use of TV in the classroom for educational purposes, regulation of violence on TV, closed caption regulation of TV, competitive problems in the cable industry, requirements for transferring radio/TV broadcast licenses, oversight of Board for International Broadcasting, FCC network acquisition approval, national public radio financial problems, establish the committee on film classification, regulation of films and broadcasts demeaning ethnic, racial or religious groups, FCC authority to regulate subscription TV, TV and movie rating system, newspaper industry regulation, Newsmen’s Privilege Act.

See also: 1929 Radio Free Europe program

1708: Weather Forecasting and Related Issues, NOAA, Oceanography

Examples: NOAA budget requests and appropriations, modernization of the national weather service, weather forecasting and warning technologies, NOAA and NASA global change research program, NOAA ocean research vessels, geological surveys of the U.S., agriculture weather information service, tornado forecasting and detection, status of the federal oceanographic fleet, adequacy of the national weather service severe storm forecasting, ocean and marine resources programs, U.S. marine and atmospheric science programs, arctic weather reporting stations.

See also: 710 protection of marine environments.

1709: Computer Industry, Computer Security, and General Issues related to the Internet

Examples: high-performance computer development, computer viruses, superconductivity research, lease of computer software.

(Special Note: Issues related to specific issues with the Internet should be coded in their respective categories. For example, financial exploitation over the Internet should go in white collar crime (code 1202).)

1798: Research and Development

Examples: National Science Foundation (NSF) budget requests and appropriations, mission of NSF, alleged abuses of federal research grants to universities, federal cooperation with universities for science research, electric and magnetic field research, telecommunications equipment research, metals research and development, DOE superconducting supercollider program, improving research facilities for science in U.S. universities, HDTV research, robotics research., national aerospace plane technology, missile development and space science.

1799: Other

Examples: establish a systematic approach to value engineering, consider various proposals for defining U.S. time zones, sightings of UFOs, establish a national science academy.

18. Foreign Trade

1800: General

Examples: Federal Trade Commission (FTC), U.S. International Trade Commission, or International Trade Administration, budget requests and appropriations, world steel trade trends and structures, various tariff and trade bills, oversight hearings on U.S. foreign trade policy, U.S. trade relations with socialist economies, trade reform act, trade expansion act, tax and trade regulations, customs court issues, trading with enemy acts.

See also: 401 foreign agricultural trade.

1802: Trade Negotiations, Disputes, and Agreements

Examples: north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), Caribbean basin free trade agreements, U.S. job market implication of NAFTA, GATT final agreement, U.S.-EC meat trade disputes, multinational trade negotiations, U.S. and China trade relations, normalize economic relations between U.S. and the former Soviet Union, U.S. and Japanese commercial trade, MFN trading status of China, energy trade between U.S. and Canada, U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, MFN status for Romania, taxation convention with Pakistan.

See also: 401 agricultural trade.

1803: Export Promotion and Regulation, Export-Import Bank

Examples: export development administration, compliance with U.S. trade laws related to the Arab boycott, export promotion programs, EX-IM bank export financing programs, restrictions on high technology exports, tax incentives to encourage exports, encourage formation of export companies, national security export licensing, export control to the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries.

1804: International Private Business Investments, Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)

Examples: foreign acquisition of U.S. owned companies, foreign direct investment in the U.S., improve federal coordination of information on foreign investments in the U.S., reciprocal foreign investment protections, U.S. business investment abroad , review foreign bank takeovers, evaluation of the overseas private investment corporation, investors involvement in illegal payments to foreign officials, activities of American multinational corporations abroad, foreign investment and American jobs, removal of tax barriers as an incentive for increased foreign investments, trade fairs, international business exchange and investments.

1806: Productivity and Competitiveness of U.S. Business, U.S. Balance of Payments

Examples: international competitiveness of the U.S. automobile industry, national competitiveness act fostering technological development, report of the competitiveness council policy, U.S. industrial trade competitiveness, federal role in supporting hi-tech competitiveness, U.S. international economic competitiveness, foreign competition in the banking industry, international competitive status of the U.S. electronics industry, Buy American Act.

See also: 108 domestic industry productivity.

1807: Tariff and Import Restrictions, Import Regulation

Examples: violation of country of origin documentation to avoid import quotas, steel import restrictions, increase of duties on materials to make pipes, expedite Commerce Dept. responses for import restriction requests, restrict import activity that adversely affects industries vital to national security, country of origin labeling requirements, U.S. textiles import quota program, countervailing duty waivers, aviation tariff charges, prohibit importation of Rhodesian chrome, duty-free entry, various tariff proposals, meat import restrictions, antidumping act and import restrictions, import restrictions for the domestic shoe manufacturing industry, import relief for leather industry, free entry of various items to colleges, universities, and for other purposes, foreign trade zones.

1808: Exchange Rates and Related Issues

Examples: Dept. of Treasury exchange rate policy, DOT international financial policy, currency manipulation and foreign exchange rates, exchange value of the dollar, U.S. policy regarding dollar decline in foreign exchange value, impact of exchange rates in U.S. trade, international monetary reform, eurocurrency monetary control, Vietnamese currency transfer legislation, fluctuation of the yen-dollar exchange rate.

1899: Other

19. International Affairs and Foreign Aid

1900: General (Department of State and U.S. Information Agency appropriations)

Examples: Department of State and U.S. Information Agency Budget Requests and Appropriations, U.S. foreign policy in view of recent world political developments, U.S. post cold war foreign policy, U.S. foreign policy and national defense issues, international tax treaties, international development and security, the U.S. ideological offensive--changing foreign opinion about the U.S., role of the diplomatic corps in foreign policy development and administration, foreign operations appropriations, information and educational exchange act, require Senate approval of treaty termination, establish the U.S. academy of peace, role of multinational corporations in U.S. foreign policy, Department of Peace, National Peace Agency.

1901: U.S. Foreign Aid

Examples: Foreign Assistance budget requests and appropriations, emergency food assistance program, U.S. economic aid to eastern Europe, U.S. foreign aid to the Soviet Union, foreign assistance and Peace Corps programs, U.S. assistance programs in Africa, proposals for financial assistance to Northern Ireland, donation of surplus agriculture products to countries with famine, U.S. international health assistance activities, migration and refugee assistance, food for peace program, European recovery program, international disaster relief, Foreign Assistance Act and its relationship to drugs.

1902: International Resources Exploitation and Resources Agreement

Examples: Antarctic environmental protection, prevention of high-seas drift net fishing, U.S. territorial sea boundaries, international agreements on fishing, Antarctic minerals policy, U.S. policy regarding the International Whaling Commission, foreign fishing in U.S. Territorial waters, regulation of exploration and recovery of international seabed hard minerals, north pacific seal fur treaty between the U.S, Canada, Japan, and the Soviets, UN conference on the law of the sea, attempts to outlaw whaling, international conservation efforts.

See also: Major topic 7 environmental protection, especially 700 for U.S. policies and international environmental issues.

1905: Developing Countries Issues

Examples: developing countries population problems, global hunger and food availability, impact of AIDS on children in developing countries, homeless children in developing countries, international family planning, role of environmental degradation in causing famine, assess elementary and secondary education programs in developing countries, effect of economic development projects on public health in developing countries, infant nutrition education practices, world population growth and its impact on natural resources.

1906: International Finance and Economic Development

Examples: International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, multilateral development bank loans, Inter-American development bank, third world debt problems, Council on International Economic Policy, Agency for International Development (AID), private sector development in Africa, U.S. financial contribution to the IMF, European development and the U.S. economy, promotion of economic development in Latin America, Paris economic summit issues, international financial management systems improvement, economic development in the Caribbean Basin, strategies to alleviate third world debt, world economic situation and U.S. economic policies, international debt and implications for international financial institutions, east-west economic relations, international energy development assistance programs, Bretton Woods agreement increasing U.S. contributions to the IMF.

1910: Western Europe and Common Market/European Union Issues

Examples: 1990 German reunification, political and economic conditions in Europe, tax convention with the UK, European Union, treaty of friendship and cooperation with Spain, labor market policy in Sweden, British entry into the Common Market and general implications for the U.S., civil conflict in Northern Ireland, peace treaties with Italy and Romania.

(Special Note: Please see guideline #5 regarding the coding of observations that mention foreign countries.)

1915: Panama Canal Issues and Other International Canal Issues

Examples: Panama Canal Commission appropriations, strategic importance of the Panama Canal, claims for ship damages in the Panama Canal, Panama Canal treaty issues, Panama Canal traffic and capacity, maintenance and operation of the Canal, development of new transoceanic canal.

1921: Other Country/Region Specific Issues

Examples: the return of Hong Kong to China, political repression in China, economic conditions in Russia, political changes in Eastern Europe, investigation of communist takeover of Hungary, civil war in Liberia, South African war with Namibia, administration policies on apartheid, political developments in El Salvador, Japanese income tax system, declining political status of Taiwan, restoration of the Kuwaiti government after the Persian Gulf War, peace process in the Middle East, Arab-Israeli conflict.

See also: 1605 U.S.-Soviet arms agreements; 1901 U.S. foreign aid to the former Soviet Union; 1910 issues dealing with the conflict between Turkey and Greece over Cyprus.

(Special Note: Please see guideline #5 regarding the coding of observations that mention foreign countries. This topic merges previous subtopics 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1919, and 1920.)

1925: Human Rights

Examples: Human rights abuses in Latin America, human rights abuses in Middle East, war crimes tribunal hearings for Serbs, U.S. international human rights policy, Helsinki Accords human rights agreements, UN report on human rights in Cuba, Soviet human rights issues, government use of torture, human rights violations in Indonesia, worldwide religious persecution, crimes associated with genocide and crimes against humanity.

1926: International Organizations other than Finance: United Nations (UN), UNESCO, International Red Cross

Examples: U.N. conference on environment and development, management of the U.N., international labor organization, termination of U.S. membership in UNESCO, international games for the disabled, international criminal court, UN food and agricultural organization, UN activities in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, review of U.S. role in the U.N., planning preparation for 1984 summer Olympics, U.N. position on major policy issues, International Health Agency, U.N. report on international housing, construction of Olympic facilities.

See also: 1602 UN peace-keeping force issues.

1927: Terrorism, Hijacking

Examples: U.S. protection of witnesses of terrorist acts, security of nuclear plants from terrorist attacks, impact of international terrorism on travel, legal mechanisms to combat terrorism, political killings in foreign countries and the international response, West Germany’s political response to terrorism, international aircraft piracy.

See also: 1615 Dept. of Homeland Security related functions and domestic terrorism prevention efforts within U.S. borders.

1929: U.S. Diplomats, U.S. Embassies, U.S. Citizens Abroad, Foreign Diplomats in the U.S., Passports

Examples: State Department’s management of U.S. embassies, U.S. citizens living abroad, regulation of travel for U.S. citizens, restrictions on foreign diplomatic immunity, Overseas Teacher Act, enhancement of security at U.S. diplomatic missions, reform the foreign service personnel system, U.S. citizens imprisoned in Mexico, passport fraud problems, training of foreign affairs personnel, Voice of America program, Radio Free Europe program, Unites States Information Agency (USIA), Peace Corps, U.S. Academy of Foreign Service or U.S. Foreign Service Academy, Radio Marti, designation of public international organizations, International Claims Act, Foreign Claims Act, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission.

See also: 1603 espionage; 208 display of USIA programs in US.

1999: Other

20. Government Operations

2000: General (includes budget requests and appropriations for multiple departments and agencies)

Examples: budget requests for various agencies and independent commissions, budget requests for DOL, HHS, and DOE, appropriations for VA, HUD, and independent agencies, budget requests for DOC, DOS, and DOJ, appropriations for the GSA, budget requests for legislative branch programs, supplemental appropriation bills, appropriations for the Treasury, Postal Service, and general government appropriations

2001: Intergovernmental Relations

Examples: federal, state, and local sector role in economic development, general exchange or transfer of funds from federal to state governments, performance of the advisory committee on intergovernmental relations, general revenue sharing authorization, state implementation of federal bloc grants, general revenue sharing, federal grant management reform, problems with state and local government finances, federal v. state claims to offshore resources.

2002: Government Efficiency and Bureaucratic Oversight

Examples: quality improvement strategies, reinventing government--restructuring the public sector, performance standards for federal agency programs, role of the council on competitiveness in regulatory review, agency jurisdiction overlap and reform, financial soundness of government corporations, need to improve government printing practices, government management problems, rule making committees in the development of federal regulations, federal agency use of advisory committees, oversight of the OMB, federal agency internal accounting standards, effort to reduce federal paperwork, allowing industry to comment on proposed federal regulations, decreasing agency reports to Congress, legislative oversight of federal agency programs, proposal to terminate DOE and transfer its functions, government waste and abuse, investigation into mismanagement of the GSA, government reorganization plans, conflicts of interest in regulatory agencies, applying economic analysis to public programs, Inspectors General, executive reorganization or executive branch reorganization, government goals, Administrative Conference Act, government printing office, recycled paper and products for government printing.

See also: appropriations for departments and agencies see topical field.

2003: Postal Service Issues (Including Mail Fraud)

Examples: United States Postal Service (USPS) budget requests and appropriations, USPS rental of property, need for additional postal facilities, oversight of USPS operations, USPS budgetary and cost issues, performance of USPS first class delivery, USPS implementation of a nine digit zip code, increase in overseas postal rates, operation and organization of the postal rate service, postal worker injuries, postal worker stress disorders, violence in the USPS, postal reorganization act, USPS efforts to automate mail processing, regulation of mail solicitations, deceptive mailing prevention act, commemorative stamps, annual report of the postmaster general, early retirement of postal employees, day care centers for postal employees, training for postmasters, regulation of obscene mail.

See also: 201 racial discrimination in the USPS; 2008 construction of post office buildings.

2004: Government Employee Benefits, Civil Service Issues

Examples: federal employee collective bargaining rights, civil service retirement benefits, federal agencies use of temporary employees, White House personnel authorization act, federal employees leave policy, federal and military wage policies, whistle blower protection for federal employees, federal personnel awards, executive personnel exchange, personnel management policies of the Senior Executive Service, tort protection for federal employees, reform pay system for federal workers, early retirement program for federal workers, government personnel training programs, federal employee contribution requirement, personnel performance appraisal system, payroll deductions for federal employees, oversight of the civil service retirement system, cost of living allowances for federal employees, authorize additional GS-16, GS-17, and GS-18 positions, civil service pension fund and interest earnings, manpower utilization in the federal government, Presidential compensation, federal employee management relations, congressional pay and congressional wages, combinations of legislative, executive, and judicial pay, reduction in force, merit systems protection board.
See also: 200 discrimination in the federal government employment; 300s changes to federal employee health benefits; 2003 postal employees; 2012 political activities of federal employees.

2005: Nominations and Appointments

Examples: nominations and appointments for all departments and agencies.

2006: Currency, Commemorative Coins, Medals, U.S. Mint

Examples: appropriations for the U.S. Mint, minting of commemorative coins, replacement of one dollar bills with coins, statehood commemorative coins, gold medal awards for Olympic athletes, design of new U.S. currency, George Washington commemorative coin act, Susan B. Anthony dollar, additional mint facilities in Denver, increasing coin production, coin to commemorate the Louisiana purchase, congressional gold medals, Congressional Medals for non-military actions.

See also: 104 monetary policy.

2007: Government Procurement, Procurement Fraud and Contractor Management

Examples: appropriations for the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, government procurement system, federal acquisition improvement, arbitration of service contract disputes, DOE contractor management, penalties for federal procurement fraud, GSA auditing of contractor bills, timeliness of federal payments to private vendors, efforts by federal agencies to circumvent the competition in contracting act, federal contract auditing policies, fraud in federal procurement programs, federal consulting service contracts, commission on government procurement, federal contract renegotiation act, omnibus contracting legislation.

See also: 1610 military procurement; 1617 military contractor oversight.

2008: Government Property Management

Examples: federal facilities construction, GSA management of public building leases, GSA’s capital improvement program, construction projects for federal courthouses, restrict smoking in federal buildings, operating costs of presidential libraries, government office space contract management, DOE property sale authorization, sale of a federal building to San Francisco, donation of surplus federal property to state and local
governments, construction of a social security office, relocation assistance and property acquisitions, foreign service buildings act, post office buildings, designating or naming federal buildings, including postal service buildings, federal courthouses, and VA medical centers, donated surplus property to states and local governments, motor vehicles provided to officers and members of the federal government.

See also: 2100 conveyance of real property.

2009: IRS Administration

Examples: IRS tax system modernization, IRS employee misconduct, taxpayer assistance and treatment, settlement of disputes between tax payers and IRS, IRS collection of delinquent income taxes, , IRS internal management and quality of service, IRS processing of income tax returns, reorganization of the IRS, taxpayers bill of rights, investigation or inspection of tax records by federal agencies or congressional committees, collection procedures for federal taxes.

See also: 107 taxation.

2010: Presidential Impeachment & Scandal

Examples: access to materials of the Nixon Administration, CIA involvement in Watergate, pardon of Nixon, transcripts of recorded presidential conversations, statement of information provided by Nixon, legal issues associated with the impeachment of Nixon, Kissinger’s role in wiretapping, 1972 presidential campaign activities, special prosecutor and Watergate grand jury legislation, Whitewater, Clinton impeachment, Lewinsky scandal, Travelgate (White House Travel Office).

2011: Federal Government Branch Relations and Administrative Issues, Congressional Operations

Examples: line-item veto proposals, pocket veto issues, constitutional roles of the president and Congress in declaring and waging war, limits on presidential war powers, amendment to permit legislative vetoes, Supreme Court ruling on the legislative veto, presidential claim of executive privilege for withholding information from Congress, continuity of federal government during an emergency, joint committee on the organization of Congress, operation of Congress, reorganization of Congressional committees, honoring retiring House members, presidential transition funding, TV broadcasts of Senate hearings, operation of the Senate Office of Sergeant at Arms, Congressional page system, investigation of a Senator, electronic voting equipment in the Senate, transmittal of executive agreements to Congress, require the president to submit annual social reports to Congress, House rules for debate, creation of a joint committee on the budget, president's emergency powers, impeachment of federal officers other than the President, legislative reference service, legislative research, Library of Congress issues, depository libraries, congressional investigations, franking privilege, legislative reorganization.

2012: Regulation of Political Campaigns, Political Advertising, PAC regulation, Government Ethics

Examples: appropriations for the Federal Election Commission and the Office of Government Ethics, federal election campaign reform, lobbying regulations for former federal employees, regulation of political campaign ads, televising debates on political issues, revising the presidential election campaign fund system, regulation on foreign corporation lobbying, campaign finance reform, political activities of federal employees, financial or business interests of Senate employees, lobbying regulations, polling, independent counsel (other than presidential investigations), Hatch Act (specifically dealing with political activities of federal employees), electoral college reform.

2013: Census

Examples: census bureau budget requests and appropriations, census bureau’s population estimates and impact on state funding, census undercounting, census data collection techniques, management of the census, federal statistics collection, counting welfare payments as income on the census, reductions in force at the census bureau.

2014: District of Columbia Affairs

Examples: DC budget requests and appropriations, creation of the DC supreme court, DC public school system, health care reform in DC, water quality problems in DC, statehood for DC, transfer ownership of RFK to DC, revise the DC judicial system, overcrowding in DC correctional facilities, DC commuter tax, DC borrowing authority extension, Washington metropolitan area transit authority metrorail construction, DC fiscal problems, drug and crime crisis in DC.

(Special Note: This covers many subject areas that would normally be coded in other subtopics (housing, medical programs, transportation systems, etc.). See related coding guidelines above.)

2015: Relief of Claims against the U.S. Government

Examples: Refunds and settlements for individuals and corporations, terrorist attack compensation policies without other substantive dimensions.

2030: Federal Holidays

Examples: activities of federal holiday and commemorative commissions, enactment of MLK, Jr. birthday as a national holiday, provide for uniform annual observances of legal public holidays on Mondays, establish Veteran’s Day as a holiday.

2099: Other

Examples: government check cashing problems, state lottery operations, former members of Congress organization, review winning papers in a high school essay contest, federal audio-visual materials, commemorative legislation, catalog of federal assistance programs, bicentennial celebration, free guide service at U.S. Capitol.

21. Public Lands and Water Management

2100: General

Examples: Budget Requests and Appropriations for the Department of Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management, proposed plan for the Department of Natural Resources, earth resources and drilling technology, resources planning, resource recovery act, activities and programs of the DOI, conveyance of certain real property of the U.S. government, conveyance of certain real property to states.

2101: National Parks, Memorials, Historic Sites, and Recreation

Examples: Budget requests for the National Park Service and Smithsonian Museums, concessions management at National Parks, Wounded Knee Park and Memorial, park protection legislation, management of Yellowstone Park, National Park Service feasibility study, threats to national parks, establishment of Barrier Island National Park, inclusion of Alaska Lands in the national park system, national forest recreation facilities, national park management issues, river systems recreation assessment, aviation heritage national historic preservation act, community recreation enhancement, recreational boating safety, national African American museum, historical park designation, designation of scenic trails, maintenance on monuments and memorials, proposals for a national visitors center, military parks and memorials, land conveyance for national parks or national memorials, Wild and Scenic Rivers, land conveyance for monuments, national seashore issues, National Historic Preservation Act, National Register of Historic Places, Smithsonian Institution issues.

See also: 2103 public lands management.

2102: Native American Affairs

Examples: Budget proposals and appropriations for Indian programs, Indian health programs, Indian water claims, federal recognition of Indian tribes, assistance to Indian tribal courts, management of Indian irrigation projects, economic aid for Indian reservations, law enforcement on Indian reservations, Indian participation in government contracting, Indian health care programs, Native Hawaiian children educational problems, Alaskan natives claims settlement, land conveyance involving Native American lands or Native American groups, Indian Child Welfare Act, Indian gambling and casinos, Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

(Special Note: This covers many subject areas that would normally be coded in other subtopics (housing, medical programs, transportation systems, etc.). See related coding guidelines above.)

2103: Natural Resources, Public Lands, and Forest Management

Examples: Budget requests and appropriations for the Forest Service and the Bureau of Mines, national forest timber sales programs, timber supply stability, forest health and clear-cutting, Colorado wilderness act, wilderness area designation, management of Pacific-Northwest old forest growths, mine reclamation, various public lands bills, forest fire prevention and control, modification of public land boundaries, management of livestock grazing on public lands, grazing fees on public lands, public land conveyance bills, enforcement of federal mining standards, wild horse control on public lands, deep seabed mineral resources, development of mineral resources on public lands, mineral exploration and development, conveyance of lands to school districts, conveyance of sewage systems on public lands, protection of archeological resources on public lands, conveyance of fish hatcheries, conveyance of public lands, payments to states from receipts derived from national forests located within such states, protecting the shores of publicly owned property.

See also: 709 animal and forest protection; 803 oil and gas leasing; 805 coal leasing; 1611 military land conveyances; 2101 land conveyance for national parks/monuments.

2104: Water Resources Development and Research

Examples: Budget requests and Appropriations for civil works programs and the Army Corps of Engineers, budget requests and appropriations for energy and water development projects, Army Corps of Engineers water resources development programs, Mississippi water development, water resources development, appropriations for dam construction, Missouri River Basin irrigation project, Colorado River Basin salinity control program, federal flood control programs, River and Harbor Flood Control Act, energy and water development projects, dredging in the Missouri River, deep water port construction, safety of dams and other water storage and control structures, Upper Snake River irrigation projects, various reclamation projects, reservoir construction, navigation and flood control projects, interstate water compacts, connecting bodies of water, Small Reclamation Projects Act, Bureau of Reclamation, general reclamation projects.

See also: 711 water and soil conservation, watershed protection; 802 hydroelectricity; 1007 navigation and maritime issues.

2105: U.S. Dependencies and Territorial Issues

Examples: future political status of Palau, Puerto Rico statehood issues, federal-territorial relationship between the U.S. and Guam, compact of free association between the U.S. and Pacific island nations, federal policies for economic development of Guam, termination of trusteeship of the Marshall Islands, proposed changes in the constitution of America Samoa, Alaska and Hawaii territorial issues, statehood for Hawaii and Alaska, Virgin Islands Corporation, various Organic Acts related to territories, former territories, and U.S. protectorates.

(Special Note: This covers many subject areas that would normally be coded in other subtopics (housing, medical programs, transportation systems, etc.). See related coding guidelines above.)

2199: Other


Additional Topics for NYT and EA Annual Only:

23. Arts and Entertainment

24. State and Local Government Administration

Examples: state and local candidates, campaigns, and elections, budget and tax issues, ethical issues about state and local officials, state and local buildings, museums, parks, landmarks, historical locations, state and local procurement and contracts, urban planning (zoning, land use, competition between cities to attract businesses, city boundaries), state and local services (water supply, street cleaning), constitutional issues (city charter revision), state and local statutes and ordinances, legislative action, speeches by the mayor or governor (inaugural, state of the city, state of the state addresses), partisan politics in the legislative arena, nominations to the state supreme court.

26. Weather and Natural Disasters

27. Fires

29. Sports and Recreation

30. Death Notices

31. Churches and Religion

99. Other, Miscellaneous, and Human Interest